Backwards Birth of a Nation, 2000 (dir. Les LeVeque)
In Backwards Birth of a Nation, LeVeque runs a VHS copy of The Birth of a Nation on fast rewind from the end to the beginning, shortening it to about 13 minutes. Then he goes back and inverts the grayscale on every second image, turning positive into negative and black into white. The resultant single-frame flicker literalizes the abhorrent black-and-white racial binaries of the original film in a gesture that intentionally makes it unwatchable.